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Halbertsma in Eck Of course, from an academic point of view the collection was very interest- ing, because it offered, for example, representations of gods, which were for- merly unknown to classical scholars, like the indigenous goddess Nehalennia or the Batavian god Magusanus.
Better objects of study were the early Christian monuments and the inscriptions from the catacombs in Rome. And so, the first large collection of antiquities entered the academy of Lei- den. Apart from Oudendorp, the objects did not receive much attention. They belonged to the curiosities in the Botanical Garden, together with the stuffed alligators, precious stones and tortoise shells. Moreover, the damp conditions in the orangery caused the deterioration of many statues.
Joints had been repaired with iron clamps, which began to rust. Parts of statues broke off, or were taken away by visitors. The 19th Century: the chair of archaeology in Leiden Caspar Reuvens: inspiration from Paris The presence of the Papenbroek bequest in Leiden was the main reason to make a choice for this city when, in , a chair of archaeology was created by Royal Decree Halbertsma 24— Reuvens, who, at the age of 25, had already proven to be a genius Fig.
It was here that his fascination for the material culture of Greece and Rome took shape. Filled with these ideas, he returned to the Netherlands, where he became Professor of Clas- sics at the small university of Harderwijk. This university was closed in In order to gain more knowledge about collections and to meet colleagues abroad, he made travels to England and the German States, and worked intensely to create a network of like-minded scholars and influential high ranking civil servants and politicians.
During his travel to London, Oxford and Cambridge he desired to acquire plaster casts of the Parthenon Marbles, recently acquired by the British Museum. The University responded negatively to his request for funds, but the Ministry of the Interior did see the importance of enlarging the collections in Leiden, and financed the transactions.
Now Reu- vens experienced with which connections he could realise his ambitions, with far reaching results. Six rooms were made available for him, in a building next to the Museum of Natural History. His second con- cern was to take an inventory of all the antiquities, which were scattered among various institutions in the Netherlands.
For this reason he made a clear descrip- tion of what kind of objects should be placed in a Museum of Antiquities. Being a classicist, the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome were his point of depar- ture. Consequently, the material remains of all the cultures which were known by or influenced by Greece or Rome had to be placed in the archaeological mu- seum: Egypt, Carthage, Persia, the Germanic and Celtic worlds Halbertsma 31— This system excluded the Americas and the Far East the Americas were included later in the 19th century.
Not all the institutions were willing to cede their antiquities to Leiden. The collections of B. Rottiers In the meantime, word had spread that a new museum was created in the Neth- erlands. Collectors with a special interest in archaeology found their way to Leiden with the result that important collections were offered to the museum. One of these collectors was the Flemish Colonel Bernard E.
Rottiers — , Fig. In , he was granted an honourable discharge with a huge bonus, and set off on his homeward journey from Tiflis via Constantinople, Athens and Rome to Ant- werp. With the fi- nancial resources of Rottiers and the political influence of Fauvel, excavations were started around Athens, aided by other members of the Athenian corps diplomatique. The excavating teams were successful. In the cemeteries along the ancient roads of Athens they discovered grave markers like marble lekythoi and beautiful stelae dating from the 4th century BC.
The finds were divided between the excavators, and the impression is that Rottiers, as the main financer, got the best of the results. Rottiers arrived with his treasures in Antwerp in and came in 5 See about Rottiers: Bastet ; Halbertsma 49— With the financial aid from the Ministry of the Interior, the antiquities were bought and the museum in Leiden came into possession of original clas- sical sculptures dating from the 4th century BC.
The enterprising Colonel did not stop with this sale. A collection of Greek ceramics, acquired by his son in , was sold to the museum Halbertsma 54—55 and an idea developed in the mind of the Colonel. During a number of talks with the Ministry of the Interior he sketched a project, with the aim to start excavations in Greece and collecting antiquities in the Mediterranean.
For this project, he needed the help of the Dutch Navy, which had a fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, based at Cap Mahon. From the fact that Professor Reuvens was not invited to these talks, it is clear that archaeology and archaeological collecting had become part of the cultural policy of the Netherlands and was planned at the Ministries in The Hague, and not in the halls of the university in Leiden. Colonel Rottiers received permission and funding for an archaeological ex- pedition to the Mediterranean which would last two years — Only af- ter this permission had been granted, Reuvens was informed about the decision.
The professor was not amused, to say the least. He had come to know Rottiers as an adventurous man, and a skilled organiser, but not as a scholarly investiga- tor.
In the meantime, Reuvens did what he could to train the Colonel in the basics of archaeology: he compiled a reading list and wrote a long memorandum about the most important aspects of the archaeo- logical mission in Greece. The mission was not successful. Witdoeck to draw in detail the medieval architecture of the Knights Templar. After , Rottiers tried a few times to ingratiate himself with Reuvens, but to no avail, especially after Reuvens had discovered that Rottiers had cheated him about the provenance of an important object from the collection which Revuens had acquired from Rottiers in It was through these channels that Reuvens came into contact, in , with a Dutch expatri- ate, who had lived for more than twenty years in Tunisia.
Jean-Emile Humbert Fig. In this function he modernised the citadel of Tunis and built various fortifications in the interior of the country. In his free time he learned Arabic, studied the his- tory of the country and started collecting ancient coins.
He became especially interested in the history of Carthage and the interpretation of its ancient ruins, which were lying in the neighbourhood of La Goulette. He made detailed plans of the Carthaginian peninsula and even started excavations, during which he found the first remains of the Punic city, which was destroyed by the Romans in BC.
When he returned to the Netherlands in , he took his drawings and collections of coins and Punic material with him. Through the Ministry he came into contact with Reuvens, whom he met in Leiden, with important con- sequences to the history of archaeology. But these men were the pioneers behind many of the great European collections of today.
The sciences and arts […] were at that time only just starting on the road to professionalism. He considered them the best plans of Carthage ever made. The location of the Punic settlement still remained a mys- tery, as no Punic remains had been unearthed.
The finds of Humbert, four ste- lae and some fragments, most of them with inscriptions, provided a starting point for solving the topographical mysteries of the peninsula and for shed- ding light on the Punic language. On one of the detailed maps of Carthage, Humbert had indicated the findspot of the Punic stelae. The maps and stelae were bought for the archaeological cabinet, the coins were acquired by the Royal Coin Cabinet in The Hague and Reuvens suggested to Humbert an archaeological expedition to Tunisia, in or- der to acquire more Punic and Roman material and to study the topography of Carthage, in view of the forthcoming publication.
Because of the national prestige of such an enterprise, the Ministry decided in favour of the expedition. Humbert was elevated to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, received a military order for his earlier achievements in Tunisia, and left the Netherlands early in the year He remained in Tunisia till and sailed home with a shipload of Punic and Roman antiquities, and notebooks full of topographical sketches and drawings of the excavations he had conducted in Carthage and in other places.
They were bought from a high ranking official at the Tuni- sian court, who provided detailed information about the spot where the statues had been found more than twenty years earlier. Reuvens and the Ministry were very pleased with the outcome of this expedition, but the topographical mate- rial was still not enough for the final publication. Moreover, Reuvens had start- ed to aim higher than Carthage alone; he wanted to incorporate the topogra- phy of Carthage in a broader context of the history of the whole North African coast.
For the sake of this endeavour, a second exhibition to North-Africa was organised, which would last four years — The ste- lae were grave markers for sacrificed children. Reuvens and his colleague Hendrik Hamaker published the stelae in Hamaker ; Reuvens The safety of Humbert outside of Tunis could not be guaranteed.
Humbert asked permission to remain in Italy, at least for the summer of This permission was granted, provided that Humbert would be active in buying antiquities for the museum in Leiden.
This provision led to unforeseen results. In , Humbert bought an important collection of Etrus- can decorated urns from Volterra and a big collection of Etruscan antiquities from Cortona Collection Corazzi. Following the acquisition of the Corazzi collection, Humbert bought an important collection of Egyptian antiquities, which had belonged to Dr Cimba, a physician of the well-known collector of Egyptian antiquities, Henry Salt see Manley, Ree In , busy with packing and shipping the Etruscan and Egyptian antiquities to Lei- den, Humbert was informed that a very large collection of Egyptian antiquities was on its way to Leghorn.
With this acquisition Leiden was on equal footing with the most important collections of Aegyptiaca in Europe: Paris, Lon- don and Turin. A new task lay ahead of Reuvens: the publication of the Egyptian monuments of the Leiden Museum. These excavations and their publication weighed heavily on his shoulders. In these circumstances it became very hard to work on three publications at the same time, apart from his duties as museum director, excavation supervisor and university professor.
The important acquisitions of Punic, Etruscan and Egyptian antiquities left the classical department behind, both in numbers and 10 More than vases from the collection of Raffaele Gargiulo: see about this collection Milanese — The end of these prosperous pioneer years is marked by the political turmoil following the Belgian insurrection in and the subsequent partition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands into two separate states.
Cultural expedi- tions to the Mediterranean were cancelled due to the dire financial situation in the Netherlands. Humbert went back to Italy, where he died in Four years earlier, Reuvens had met an untimely death, following a stroke.
This event thwarted all his ambitious projects. Colonel Rottiers survived both Reuvens and Humbert, and died in in Brussels, at the age of 86 years. He was buried with military honours. With the death of these three protagonists there came an end to the eventful pioneer period of the Leiden Museum. Epilogue: towards a comprehensive study of historical collections So far I have sketched a story of collecting classical antiquities in the Nether- lands, from the 17th century till the birth of the official study of archaeology in the first half of the 19th century.
This story has been told from a Dutch point of view. But we must not forget that archaeology and the trade in antiquities have been practised on an international scale. In order to comprehend the prov- enance and the history of objects, it is of paramount importance to look at every aspect of the object or collection in question. Let us take, for example, an early Christian sarcophagus, which belonged to Peter-Paul Rubens in the 17th cen- tury. Carleton had bought these antiquities in Venice, from the collection of Cardinal Giovanni Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia.
On the plinth of the sarcophagus, there is an inscription dedicating the object to the eternal memory of Pope Marcellus, Bishop of Rome in the years — The inscription is not from the 4th century AD, but leads us to Rome, where a church in honour of Marcellus was built in the 8th century AD.
The mortal remains of Saint Marcellus were transported to this church on the Via del Corso from the catacombs of Santa Priscilla. In order to add some 12 Now in Leiden, inv. Pb Maybe on this occasion, Grimani removed the damaged remains of the sarcophagus and placed them among his own collection of antiquities, which were bequeathed in to his nephew Giovanni Grimani in Venice. The sar- cophagus is heavily restored and shows traces of black soot, probably the traces of the fire in A second example may be taken from the expedition of Rottiers during the years — In August , Rottiers started excavations on the island of Melos.
He bought a piece of land next to the findspot of the Venus of Milo, and according to a common practice he was allowed to dig the terrain. He un- earthed a mosaic floor, of which he lifted the main panels. According to his report, he also found an altar decorated with boukrania, which he took aboard his ship. He had just ended his activities on Melos when he was informed about new laws concerning the acquisition of ancient objects.
In his own words: My activities were disrupted by the archon of Milo. This magistrate informed me of a decree by the Greek government, which forbade every foreigner, from every country, to carry out excavations and appropriate pieces of antique monuments. All these objects belong to the state. Once the Greeks have finished a heavier task, they want to place them in a Hellenic Museum.
With pride they will show the foreigners what is left of their ancestors, of those men who gave Europe its art and civilization. I obeyed the orders of the archon, although I myself had bought the terrain of the excavations. It meant taking leave of grand projects.
I sacrificed my sincere hopes to the young legislation of a suffering country and I do not believe that I should feel sorry for that. The archon of the island wrote to Rottiers: To our great amazement we have seen that you have lifted from the earth a mar- ble, which does not belong to you at all. And now you confiscate a marble discovered by another person on a different field […]. If you proceed to take it by force, we admonish you that it is worth collonati, which will be fined to you on behalf of our government.
This behaviour was reported to the authori- ties on the Greek mainland. Articles appeared in Greek journals about his con- duct, and when Rottiers arrived in Athens to measure architectural remains and to buy antiquities, his reputation had preceded him: he was caught by the police, and was forced to return all the ancient items he had collected.
Then, the enraged good Dutchman, not only did he not pay the expenses he had made at the hotel, but he also refused to pay the people who had served him, and while leaving the place, he threatened that he would guide the Turks how to conquer Athens. Other archival sources may shed a totally different light on the events in Greece.
The third and last example can be taken from the travels of Jean Emile Humbert. In Tunisia, he was not the only antiquarian trying to buy antiquities. As sketched above, Humbert was interested in acquiring the imperial statues, which had been found around in Utica. They were in the possession of a high ranking minister of the Bey. When Humbert arrived in Tunis in , he learned that one of the finest statues, probably representing Plotina, the wife of emperor Trajan, had been bought by the Danish consul Andreas Christian Gierlew now in Copenhagen, see Lund Falbe had started excavations in Carthage, which were disrupted by Humbert 13 Letter by Mr.
Emanuel to Rottiers, August , cited in: E. Protopsaltes ed. The document is to be published in: Charalampos Maliopoulos, Chasing the imaginary — The classical past of ancient Greece: colonial and national fantasies Leiden University MA Thesis, forthcoming. The result was that Falbe saw his excava- tion totally ruined, a fact that he never forgave Humbert. None of these inter- national conflicts ever reached the ears of Reuvens or the Ministry.
At various moments, he was ahead or behind one of these players in acquiring objects. He stood also in close contact with Eduard Gerhard, the founding director of the Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica and visited with him in an exhibition of Greek vases excavated on the premises of Lucien Bonaparte near Viterbo.
The availability of searchable archival sources, which are kept in muse- ums and State Archives, is essential for understanding this period of dynamic collecting, international competition and governmental involvement. Moreo- ver, only the archives can give answers to the very important questions concern- ing the legality, the motives and the practicalities of 19th century collectionism. It would allow us to recreate the original archaeological environment existing before the activities of the antiquarian adventurers of the 19th century.
The Making of Rubens. Bastet F. De drie collecties Rottiers in Leiden. Leiden: Rijksmuseum van Oud- heden. Bundgaard Rasmussen B. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmard. Eck C. Berlin—Boston: Walter de Gruyter. Halbertsma R. Le solitaire des ruines — de archeologische reizen van Jean Emi- le Humbert in dienst van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Leiden: Rijksuniversiteit. London—New York: Routledge. In: C. Berlin— Boston: Walter de Gruyter. Hamaker H. Diatribe philologico-critica monumentorum aliquot Punico- rum nuper in Africa repertorum interpretationem exhibens.
Lugduni Batavorum: S. Haskell F. Hoijtink M. Rubens and Italy. Logan A. Amsterdam: North-Hollan. Lund J. In: V. Ciccotti ed. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi Camillo Borgia.
Velletri: Comune di Vel- letri, 75— Manley, D. London: Libri. Milanese A. Firenze: Edifir edizioni Firenze. Muller J. Rubens: The Artist as Collector. Princeton: Princeton University Press. De verzameling van Rubens in historisch perspectief.
In: K. Bel- kin, F. Healy eds. Een huis vol kunst — Rubens als verzamelaar. Antwerpen: Ru- benshuis. Regteren Altena I. De portretgalerij van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en haar stichter Gerard van Papenbroeck, — Amsterdam: Swets en Zeitlinger.
Reuvens C. Vickers M. List of illustrations Fig. Louis Moritz, Portrait of Professor C. Reuvens, ca. Portrait of B. Rottiers, lithography after a painting by Th. Lawrence, from Les Monumens de Rhodes Portrait of J. Humbert, ca. Boggi, Special Collections, Leiden University.
From Antiquarianism to Scholarship… Fig. Their antique collections were among the largest in the Duchy, distinguished by a variety of artefacts. They helped establish the identity of the family and create images of its power.
More purposeful and more erudite antique collections have emerged. The content of the collections also changed — in addition to local ob- jects, the collection of ancient antique artefacts began to be collected more con- sistently, focusing more on objects of one category Mikocki ; Betlej — In the 18th century, however, earlier models of antique accumulation remained important.
Traditionally, the origins and power of the family were represented at the noble courts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania when collect- ing antiques, mainly family heirlooms and other local artefacts. These nobles were the princes of the Holy Ro- man Empire, high-ranking state officials, owners of large estates and belonged to the most significant art collectors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Many of the descriptions of the collections are fragmentary, some consider special groups of objects, such as numismatic ones.
The article is also based on the diaries of nobles and the correspondence of the officials of the court. In their diaries, they 3 The collections were first looted in the second half of the 18th century, when Nesvizh was devastated by the Russian army.
There are almost no specialised descriptions for the antiques left. The status of antiques as collectibles was also supported by examples from other lands that the princes encountered while traveling. At that time, the prince was already holding the important position of the Lithuanian field hetman. Wobbe provided more information about the objects, wrote down their inscriptions, sometimes gave more precise names to materials or iconography, and explained the origin and purpose of the objects in more detail.
However, at the court of Hieronim Florian, the antiques were more associated with the diversity of the world, its curiosities. It lists natural objects, artefacts, and various oddities, which Hieronim Florian thought were worth enjoying in his residence. The list of 34 items also mentions several relics of ancient civi- lizations. Various types of antiques are also mentioned in the descriptions of Marcin Wobbe wrote the inscriptions and dedication for the book Icones familiae ducalis Radivillianae Although much of the ancestral antiques were inherited, one of them was acquired relatively recently.
Paintings and other works depicted the military marches of various branches: Ber- natowicz — The document was examined by Krzysztof Filipow: Filipow — Among them — a blade found in Volhynia, in an ancient tomb. The treasure of Nesvizh also contained items related to the history of the Duchy and its contacts with neighbouring countries, the history of wars. It is likely that the same shield is now housed in the National Museum in Krakow Fig.
Probably it was made in Augsburg or Milan in the late 16th century. Many foreign weapons and war trophies have been preserved. Matuszewicz ; Kowalczyk The princes also appreciated the objects relating to the rulers of Lithuania, Po- land, and other European countries. The identification of the nobility with the estate of knightly warriors encouraged the presentation and preservation of armaments. However, unlike local relics, universal antiques also had other meanings — they represented the diversity of the world and the origins of European culture.
The origins of these items are usually undefined in invento- ries. They probably inherited these items from their parents. Next to one of them, the sacrificial knife, the legend of the origin of this metal is described: an alloy of gold, silver, and other metals was formed by accident when Herostratus set fire to the temple of Diana Artemis in Ephesus. Some pagan sacrificial objects are associated with the territories of the provinces of the Roman Empire. For more on Corinthian bronze, see: Jacobson, Weitzman — The source probably contains a distorted name for the Carnuntum area.
Systematic archaeological excavations in this area began in the 19th century. Sometimes sacrificial supplies are associated with the Old Testament events and places. One of them is the sword mentioned in the Gospel, with which St. They were probably flat, triangular fossils found in Europe, mentioned by Pliny the Elder. In the Middle Ages and later, they were considered the tongues of snakes called Glossopetrae turned into stone on the Island of Malta by St.
There were also other early Christian relics. Sixteen statues are listed, including a copy of the famous Farnese Bull, Capitoline Wolf, as well as Saturn, Venus, and other ancient gods. In the previous collections, the depictions of the themes and motifs of these objects were not equally detailed. In , the inventory of the Nesvizh treasure mentions the ancient Greek unicorn cross with figures and an image of the Resurrection of Christ. It was gifted to John Sobieski by the Patriarch of Alexandria.
The numismatic collections of were relatively large. Hieronim Florian also possessed numismatic items. In a list compiled after his death, 22 of the numismatic objects were named Roman. Several items in this collection are described in detail. Among them is a Greek coin or medal with the image of the Macedonian soldier Lysimachus. Other 26 larger and smaller medals or coins of the Roman emperors were also listed separately.
The origin of the most of these objects is unknown. But authentic artefacts are very likely to be found in this group. The description shows that the object was valued by the prince as a testimony to the historical reality, the small body of Alexander the Great. The inclusion of the feather in the set of the most valuable items was to be a sign of a fateful coincidence in the recent history of the family and, at the same time, its participation in the order of the history of the world under the care of Providence.
The object inspired imag- es of antiquity and helped to substantiate the connection of the family with the universal origins of Europe, the well-known and important events of its past. Commenting on antiques, he revealed the connections between ancient civilizations and the his- tory of the family. There were many different types of objects in the collection. Universal antiques were not consistently systematised. However, in the Wettin times, an attempt was made to single out objects of universal history or to create new groups of them.
It reflects a search for a more specific place for universal objects, one that is more in line with their nature. Oriental antiques and ancient Egyptian artefacts Another group of antiques was related to distant, non-European territories.
In addition, Hieronim Florian had one exceptional sword. Based on the claims of unnamed Syrian princes, the magnate considered the weapon to be one of the five swords once belonging to the Prophet Muhammad and men- tioned in the Quran prophecy.
Three out of five swords have already been regained by Muslims, but two have not. In this story, the nobleman emphasized the importance of the sword for the destiny of the entire Christian world. The status of the object as a material testimony to history is also expressed. Although many family valuables were looted at the time, the mummy was left behind.
It was stored in the library, along with other rarities, natu- ral objects and works of art. The acquisition of the mummy was probably also motivated by the uniqueness of this object: 50 A solid amount was paid, significantly exceeding the annual salaries of many court officials and professionals of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at that time: Kitowicz In the first half of the 18th century, King Augustus II had ancient Egyptian artefacts, but there is no data yet that any noble family of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was in possession of such items.
Their collections contained a wide variety of antiques, corresponding to the paradigm of a comprehensive, universal collec- tion. Relatively much importance was attached to the traditional artefacts of aristocratic collections — weapons and emblems of power.
A large part of the antiques consisted of family relics. The collection of ancient numis- matic objects was also relatively large. The authenticity of the artefacts was some- times noted. Kitowicz J. Lauterbach S. Franckfurth: Knoch. Matuszewicz M. II: — Vilnius: Mintis. Brzezina ed. Warsza- wa: Energeia. Secondary sources Abramowicz A. Bernatowicz T. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
Betlej A. Akten der internationalen Tagung zum Dresden: Sandstein Verlag, pp. Brzezina K. Studia Podlaskie, 7, 5— Christian K. Christian, B. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. Filipow K. In: W. Walczak, K. Hsu K. In: G. Rosenberg ed. The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the En- lightenment.
The Boulder: Geological Society of America, pp. Jacobson D. What Was Corinthian Bronze? American Jour- nal of Archaeology, 96, — Warszawa: Wydawnictwo naukowe Semper. Kowalczyk J. In: J. Kowalczyk ed. Warszawa: Instytut Kultury. Mencfel M. Prejs, A. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Neriton, pp. Archiwum Filologiczne, Obrazy literackie. Menotyra, 2, 43— Skrzypietz A.
Obrazy Kultury Polskiej. Kaunas: Nacionalinis M. In: T. Chynczewska-Hennel et al. Silvestre Augustyn Mirys? Nesvizh Castle. Bernard de Montfaucon. Antiquity Explained and Represented in Diagrams Paris, , vol. The fascination with the rediscovered artifacts of antiquity led artists not to just collect them, but also to utilize them to rethink the legacy of Classical art and create something new out of it.
One of the most admired masters of Neoclassicism, the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, had his own collection of antiquities which is now preserved in the Thorvaldsen Museum in Copenhagen. In the following I will attempt to capture the impact that these artifacts and plaster casts had on his work, and also point out how important his role was in the education of appren- tices during his Roman period.
Most probably he encountered ancient statues for the first time in the Royal Danish Academy of Arts, where he had been admitted in at the age of Abildgaard also had a small collection of coins and medals Fejfer, Me- lander 9. Abildgaard likewise had another role in establishing a connec- tion between Thorvaldsen and antiquity: he presumably introduced Thorvalds- en to the professor of sculpture Johannes Wiedewelt, who along with Abilgaard was the most important scholar of Classicist theory in Denmark.
Regarding his library, it is worth mentioning that after he arrived in Rome, an increasingly systematic conception of collecting unfolded as his time there progressed: most of the titles show archeological and topo- graphical interests, but books about mythology and numismatics can also be found beside the works of ancient authors and museum catalogs.
Incidentally, it is very poor thinking by the Academy when they send people so very raw to Italy, where they must later waste so very much time learning things without which they cannot properly benefit from their stay here, and which they could have learned sooner and more easily before they went on their travels. Without knowing a word of Italian or French, without the slightest knowledge of his- tory and mythology, how is it possible for an artist to study here as he should?
Had they the knowledge, then they could perhaps do without the language, or had they the languages, then they could find books here to instruct them; but without both they are lost and do not know where to begin. I do not de- mand that an artist must be a scholar, I do not even wish it; but he must at least have some sort of obscure idea of the name and significance of the things he sees.
The rest can be supplemented by relations with scholars, but when in any dis- course one must begin with the ABC, it soon becomes tiresome for both parties. His words lead us to different conclusions. It seems Thorvaldsen arrived in Rome as a completely uneducated youngster, which is of course merely an ex- aggeration when judged by the standards of an old scholar.
The Danish archeologist P. In he became a member of the papal academy of arts, the Ac- cademia di San Luca, where he was elected professor of sculpture in Later, in , he was elected director of the institute. For the purpose of increasing his collection, he used his connections to regularly visit archeological excavations in the Gulf of Naples and northern Italy. This needs no further explanation, yet it is important to remember that because of his status, Thorvaldsen was among the first scholars to find out about the latest discoveries in the excavations, and although he did not exercise absolute control over the fate of the artifacts that were discovered, due to his reputation he had the possibility to be the first to make use of their motifs, to restore them, or to purchase them.
Moreover, he considered restoration to be an especially thankless task that impinged on his self-esteem, because his contri- bution was not visible on the restored artifact. It remains uncertain whether he restored any of the items in his own collection or not Fejfer, Melander The collection The installation of the collection of antiquities in the Thorvaldsen Museum leads us to some interesting conclusions regarding its former owner.
The parti- tioning of the collection obviously evinces a conceptual intention which is not necessarily consequential. The displays of marble statues and fragments suggest a rather aesthetical arrangement; thematic cohesion emerges only accidentally in rela- tion to a few items. The same goes for lanterns, gems, and tiny objects made of semi-precious stones, which are really special pieces, but due to their small size they would not be representative enough for contemporary collectors.
It seems variety was also a motive behind the collection, but — just as in the cases of foot-, hand-, and drapery-fragments — the motifs and compositions of the gems and lanterns served as models for his own art. The most pragmatically-motivated category is the plaster cast collection. While the value of marble fragments, gems, and medals is undeniable given their originality, the plaster casts clearly serve as a collection of motifs not only for Thorvaldsen but also for the apprentices working in his atelier.
The casts considered as sources of inspiration came in handy not only during the mak- ing of his own statues, but were useful for restorations, since only a cast made after antique originals, or fragments carved on the basis of originals, can really replace the piece to be restored on a statue.
It is important to note that these casts were made from the most precious works of the Farnese Collection, the Ludovisi Collection, and the Vatican Museum before Napoleon shipped them to Paris Fejfer, Melander Because of him, the collection has some pieces that were not displayed in the beginning, but which are nowadays available to the general public.
In order to protect the reputation of the celebrated Danish sculptor, numerous works of art depicting erotic scenes and phallic symbols were censored. It may be surprising to know, however, that both when he first arrived in Rome and then later as an established artist, he often used the motifs of ancient artifacts, and in some cases recycled and expanded them. This is because there was no established sculptural style of depiction of the Argonaut leader that Thor- valdsen could have utilized, so he had to create the figure of the mythical hero based on other prefiguration.
The evident compositional similarity thus helped Thorvaldsen only in his general portrayal of the hero, but the need for it to be recognizable also made the inclu- sion of the Golden Fleece essential. K The examination of plaster cast collection, units of body parts, draperies, and marble fragments serving as a repertory of motifs is problematic for several reasons. First, it is not known whether Thorvaldsen actually applied all of them or simply enriched this part of the collection in order to expand it.
Secondly, even if he had used these fragments, they are so common that their identifica- tion is impossible, and would not introduce any novelty into the study of Clas- sicist sculpture. The variety of objects from his collection he employed, and the ingenuity of their application is even more interesting. In terms of formation, Thorvaldsen had the possibility to access numerous portraits of Roman emperors, but in terms of composition we can point out some interesting antecedents from his collection.
Other examples include some motifs from truly ancient lanterns Fig. From the Hadrian bust he made use of the small aegis which was always attached to the left shoul- der; Thorvaldsen, however, placed it on the right one. The statue of Hadrian is standing on a globe that is held by an eagle with outstretched wings. A, A, A, A H, H However, it cannot be stressed enough that his adaptation is rarely unmediated, and I assume that a motif from an ancient object had often served as confirmation for the artist regarding the correct use of prefiguration as seen on contemporary — or recent — works of art.
The Muses, by their very nature, provided additional inspiration for Thor- valdsen. Nor can the dichotomy of imitation vs. With this in mind, it could be understood why the works of Classicist sculptors resemble ancient compositions and motifs, and yet by comparing them, we find they differ in the details. They are similar and different at the same time. This seems to resemble the dilemma of a mediocre but acclaimed foreign artist as he considers whether to remain in Rome or return home to the unknown.
The topos of the pensive artist and the genius rushing to his aid is not new in the fine arts, but in this case an obvious foreshadowing may also come into play. Almost twenty years later, this motif was almost completely adopted by Ferenczy when he modeled the plaster sketches of the reliefs designed for the monument to King Matthias Fig. There is no information on the motives behind the selec- tion of, or how Ferenczy obtained, ancient artifacts in Rome.
Given that we have no knowledge of such intentions from before which could be explained by his financial situation , however, it is sure that not only Thorvaldsen but Canova, too, had influenced the Hungarian artist to collect antiquities. Bearing in mind the danger of speculation, I assume that Ferenczy may have been misled by the archaic design of the statues and their stylized details. Nonetheless, the collection had a category that included truly antique pieces, which were however lost under unclear circumstances after the collection was acquired in the s.
Although the quality of the archive photos made from the collection does not allow us to make clear dating, it is nonetheless still apparent that those pieces are by no means representative of what the Danish master had. Antiques, and statues considered to be antique, did not serve as a compositional example for his oeuvre, either, and Ferenczy himself seems to have sought inspiration for his own works more from his Danish master, as well as perhaps from Canova and from the famous statues in the Vatican Museum.
Bibliography Brun F. Der neue Teutsche Merkur, Bd. Weimar: C. Wieland, — Busk-Jepsen K. Gregersen ed. Echo Room. Thorvaldsen, Willumsen, Jorn and their Collections. Berlin: Hatje Cantz Verlag. Cifka P.
Szabolcsi, A. Fejfer J. Co- penhagen: Thorvaldsens Museum. Ferenczy I. Hartmann J. Antike Motive bei Thorvaldsen. Meddelelser fra Thorvaldsens Museum Bulletin. Copenhagen: Thorvaldsens Museum, 48— Thorvaldsens bogsamling. The sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. Thorvaldsens Museum. Meller S. Budapest: Athenaeum. Sass E. Acta Congressus Madvigiani , vol. Rome: Strenna dei Romanisti.
Winckelmann J. Dresden—Lepizig: Walther. Zamarovsky V. Lamp with Jupiter and the eagle. Roman, 25—7. Bertel Thorvaldsen: Napoleon Bonaparte. Thorvaldsens Musem. Thor- valdsens Museum. These two different sets enable us to illustrate the history of collecting intaglios and cameos, and explain why engraved gems became such a popular phenomenon among the eighteenth and nineteenth century enthusiasts of antiquity, its art and craftsmanship. The craftsmanship of ancient engravers was absolutely unique compared to the large-scale media and most of the engraved gems survived nearly or completely untouched by the time.
All these aspects contributed to their special status in the collecting of art in the Neo-Classical era. The phenomenon of collecting engraved gems, well developed among the aristocratic Italian families like the Grimani, Medici, Orsini or Dukes of Man- tua and performed under the patronage of popes in the eighteenth century, spread virtually across entire Europe Neverov The eighteenth century was also the time when some individuals came out of the collecting box with much more ambitious projects since their devotion to gems pushed them to ask questions about their makers, chronology, potential functions and meaning in antiquity.
Here, Stosch, a rep- resentative of an old but relatively poor Prussian noble family who created an outstanding and rich collection of engraved gems, proves to be a pathfinder who steered studies of ancient glyptics onto a very innovative course. There were two factors contributing to his suc- cess — his ease in establishing contacts making him very well-connected, and his ambition. Zazoff, Zazoff Pomian Zwierlein-Diehl Hans- son In , Stosch arrived in Rome and stayed there for the next two years.
Stosch quickly noticed a po- tential in offering his services as an art dealer and advisor in Rome for notable German-speaking grand tourists. At the unexpected death of his brother Ludwig in Paris in , Stosch was called back home, and while traveling to Kustrin he made further useful roni Salvadori ; Zazoff, Zazoff 3—67; Lang ; Zwierlein-Diehl —; Hansson 13— There, he was recruited by Lord Carteret as a spy with a mission to infiltrate the diplomatic circles in Rome and report on the actions taken by James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender — With these new additional employment, Stosch arrived in Rome in the early and stayed there until his spying activities were unmasked in , forcing him to leave Rome for Florence where he stayed until his death.
Stosch was not an ordinary dealer and collector, though. During all his travels as well as stays in Rome and Florence, he accessed a large number of royal and private collections of gems, accumulating materials for his studies, especially a book project devoted to intaglios and cameos signed by ancient masters. This pioneering work helped him establish his position as a connois- seur of ancient glyptic items in the antiquarian circles of Rome dominated by Italians.
Among the many valuable contacts Stosch made along his travels there were a few particular ones like the leading Italian artists, connoisseurs of antiq- uities and collectors of gems: Pier Leone Ghezzi — and Hieronymus Odam ca.
He selected them to contribute illustrations to his book Fig. The book appeared under the title Gemmae antiquae celatae in and became a great success Fig. First, it was devoted to a single, scholarly phenomenon rather than another presentation of a collection like it was traditionally the case at the time.
Second, he rejected typ- ical subject-matter organisation and introduced high standards of the publica- tion: the gems were presented on individual plates with full discussion on them in the accompanying texts, as well as information on the gemstone types they were made of and provenance information, for example collections to which they belong.
As a result, the illustrations received some criticism because they were judged too artistic, rather than accurate. The discovery of a huge collection of drawings of engraved gems in the Princes Czartoryski Museum in Krakow commissioned by Stosch provides an opportunity to study the preparation process of his first book in details, and a unique insight into his other virtually unknown scholarly projects.
The circumstances of their purchase, probably in Florence, according to his correspondence, are not entirely clear. For example, in the archives related to Stosch, one finds information that he planned to publish in the second volume of the 7 Mariette vol.
He was collecting material, but despite the new book being referenced from time to time, no real progress was presented until his death in Mariette vol. Strodtmann 50; Za- zoff, Zazoff 66; Hansson Nevertheless, only now the discovery of the large pictorial archive of gem drawings in Krakow demonstrates that indeed the project was quite advanced and Stosch collected dozens of signed gems.
The first illustrations were made by Ghezzi but apparently, Stosch later hired a skilful German draughtsman Johann Justin Preissler to document new gems intended to be published in the new book Fig. The reasons why Stosch did not ultimately publish them still need to be investigated. The drawings related to the first and the second volume of Gemmae antiquae caelatae study constitute only a small fraction of the collection in Krakow.
It appears that alongside that inventory work, Stosch also produced casts and impressions of his items in glass paste and sulphur, and he apparently commis- sioned drawings of a large portion of them Fig.
It is expected that the elaboration and contextualisation of the gem draw- ings rediscovered in Krakow together with the drawings once in the Spencer- Churchill Album and those in other small sets will allow to fully reconstruct all 10 The drawings are described as such in old museum catalogues. They testify to the outstanding collecting and research standards of the Prussian bar- on.
His investigations on gems with signatures and techniques of documenta- tion of regular intaglios and cameos from various cabinets, also in the pictorial form, show how much he advanced the studies of glyptic art in the first half of the eighteenth century. The processes that begun in the first half of the eighteenth century were continued later. In the second half of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century, many collections of engraved gems were built mainly by the representatives of nobility, but some also by dealers and less wealthy col- lectors.
Nevertheless, there were still individuals who created interesting and valuable collections also succeeding to buy pieces from old, dis- persed cabinets. The talented restorer of Old Master paintings worked for about twelve years in the Hermitage Museum, and pur- sued his career as an art dealer and collector in St.
In , a serious illness forced him to move out of St. It is known that the collector regularly visited this place purchasing large number of intaglios.
As a result, the bulk of ancient gems he amassed are regular products for the period of their production but still he managed to acquire some real masterpieces. A good example of that is an onyx cameo fea- turing portrait of Drusus the Elder once in the celebrated Demidoff collec- tion Fig. Another rare piece is a tiny emerald cameo presenting laureated bust of Livia as Venus Genetrix — mother of the Julio-Claudian clan Fig.
Exceptional and rare is a three-dimensional bust of Eros cut in chalcedony and dated to the 2nd century AD Fig. Ultimately, in they arrived at Krakow and were presented to the recently founded Na- tional Museum in exchange for a life-long pension. The col- lection suited such a purpose perfectly because as has been said, it presents the development of glyptic art from the very beginnings to the contemporary times, and there is a great variety of subject-matters presented on gems. The dif- ficulties related to the First and Second World War, among others.
According to archival sources, he possessed nearly 50 paintings by top artists, mostly Flemish, Dutch, Italian and German masters. As a result, only fourteen paintings and miniatures arrived in Krakow, and they are listed in the anonymous inventory dated Most of them are now considered lost or remain unidentified due to scanty and imprecise descrip- tions.
Exceptions are three: an oil painting on panel said to depict John Dig- by, 1st Earl of Bristol — and an English diplomat by unknown artist, though in the inventory from attributed to Frans Pourbus the Younger — Fig.
Apart from these, in the last years of his life Constantine was still donating individual works of art to the National Museum in Krakow. Regarding the later history of the paintings that ended up in Switzerland, in the collections and archives of the Polish Museum in Rapperswil was declared state property by Polish Prime Minister. After liquidation of the First Polish Museum in Rapperswil in , the paintings were transferred together with its other collections to Warsaw where they joined State Art Collections and were housed in Podwale in Warsaw Kuhnke In , some of the best paintings were exhibited in the Baryczkowska House in the Main Square in Warsaw and later individual paintings decorated government cabi- nets and other important private institutions while the rest of them and the archives from Rapperswil were kept in the Central Military Library at Aleje Ujazdowskie and later also in the Krasicki Library in Warsaw Kuhnke 10— Nevertheless, it is possible to prove that some of them survived and most of these are now housed in the National Museum in Warsaw.
The paintings from the Polish Rapperswil Museum displayed in the Baryczkowska House were catalogued in Anon Even though their descriptions are very short and sometimes im- precise, seventeen paintings have been identified. Among these, six outstanding 16 The National Museum in Krakow inv. According to the Anon no.
The war loses are severe though. Prior to the War, nine of them were in the National Mu- seum in Warsaw nos. One painting no. Like in the case of his assemblage of engraved gems, it is surprising that a collector of his status not particularly wealthy managed to collect works of art of such a high quality. He must have acquired considerable connoisseurship which is confirmed not only by the quality of paintings in his collection but also his attributions, most of which are confirmed even in the light of the newest research table 1.
Madonna with the donna with the Child, oil no. Portrait of hr. Horn, M. Biblical Scene, water- Scene, miniature on no. Adoration of the Three Adoration of the Three no.
Cleopatra, oil on panel , Head of a Young no. Beatrix Cenci, oil on of , Beatrix Cenci, oil on no. Saint John the Baptist, school of , Saint John no. Head of Museum in Warsaw, inv. Conclusions The National Museum in Krakow and the Princes Czartoryski Museum in Kra- kow own tremendously important collections of artefacts related to ancient and modern glyptic art.
The latter proves that studies of ancient glyptics were crucial in the later transformation of antiquari- anism into archaeology and ancient art history as scientific disciplines. Download Windows 10 Before updating, please refer to the Windows release information status for known issues to confirm your device is not impacted. To get started, click Update now. Update now Privacy. Create Windows 10 installation media To get started, you will first need to have a licence to install Windows Download tool now Privacy.
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The strength of this trope is evident in illustrations of collectors through time, as seen, for instance, in the portrait of the school rector of St. Betlej A.